Sunday, 20 August 2017

Stay obvious involving Accidents and Maintain Clean Landscape Using Tree Support Companies

You may not be conscious of this reality however tree maintenance could a lot more aids one to conserve numerous dollars. These types of undesirable trees could damage the wall surfaces and also sewage techniques together with passing time. In case anyone obtain to obtain rid involving undesirable trees too as extra determine with regard to fort really worth tree trimming, next you are complimentary coming from investing money on various other allocations.

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Not merely protecting against wall surface fractures, however proper tree therapy too as companies will surely steer clear of any type of additional crashes from using area. In your event that you have an old tree within your landscape, you can easily find possibilities which a classic branch could drop on you anytime.

Some undesirable solid tree trunks may hinder your own job, as well as a person need expert Tree service, throughout such emergency scenarios constantly. From existing, acquiring rid of undesirable trees is not a difficult activity, when you have agents for you to direct an individual using the total treatment. A Variety Of other in contrast to always be able to removing unnecessary trees, you might in addition prepare in order to get rid of dead trees with out working with any sort of trouble.

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Saturday, 1 July 2017

Marketing & Advertising :: Online Marketing Strategies And The Way They Work

In the beginning it is always rough. It's called experimentation and that we all proceed through it. What do people mean when they say the words affiliate marketing? Affiliate marketing may be the fastest growing marketing today.

After that, you merely have to become vigilant on your campaign and all sorts of your hard work will finally pay off. Bischke talks about the direction his company is headed and why classic marketing techniques are not essential for his company. The market research cost and effectiveness, if done right, will become invaluable to a company that's starting a campaign like this and achieving many evaluated. Bischke talks concerning the i7 group review direction his company is headed and why classic marketing techniques aren't necessary for his company. Like Facebook and Twitter, businesses can make th e big lead towards success by incorporating social media directly to i7 group espaol their websites.

Video marketing production is fairly simple. Quality is definitely important if this comes to an advertising video because if your video isn't quality then it is not going to be shared. By: Sarah hopkins.

Use these guidelines above each time you need to publish a fresh video, and you're virtually guaranteed a great deal of traffic to your internet site from your effort. The decision to make use of Internet marketing as part of your company's overall online strategy is strictly up to the company of course, but as a rule, Internet marketing is becoming an increasingly important section of nearly every company's marketing mix. There are videos that receive a great deal of traffic on a normal basis. This does not only affect inter net marketing, it pertains to ANY dream.

In Part II we will discuss specific strategies for content, viral marketing, and SEO for industrial videos. some pages on various Web 0 sites and rank them in Google. For tips and advice to help you get the best Online Marketing Video strategies, go to his blog: Wealth Success Ventures. some pages on various Web 0 sites and rank them in Google. Page 1 of 2 :: First - Last :: Prev - 1 2 - Next.

Friday, 30 June 2017 - 404 - Page cannot Be Found

5 Explanations Why You Should Think About Social Media Marketing to Market Your i7 group review Web Businessby: Sachin K Airan. If you've not previously used video marketing then you may well be amazed at how effective it can be it getting your website new visitors. If you have not previously used video marketing then you may be surprised at how effective it can be it getting your website new visitors. If you are looking to get a creation that is able to reduce the look of fine lines, wrinkles, discoloration, large pores, uneven skin texture, and aging skin, a plant-based cream called Nerium AD Age-Defying Treatment could be just that which you are looking for.

However, the study does not specifically state that the national reading level average are at the eighth grade level. These companies will pump out your message 1000s of members who to be able to gain credits must click about the ad so there own ad and sight is g oing to be seen. Keeping up with the friends in addition to their latest acquisition is exactly what drives many shoppers to buy. The courses they have however are accredited in the UK. Conclusion .

For example, you can find a fifty year old piece of music, but if it is being performed by means of a modern band then that selection just isn't public domain. If they are already in an opportunity, then they do not want to listen to about another opportunity. I don't wish to find out about what people had for lunch.

The first video marketing secret that can assist you to attract eyeballs is using a video which will introduce your product or service for the customers and clients. * Push advantages EUR" personalization of messages, high conversation rate, and detailed tracking of customer choices. The most significant stats your CV should f eature include your previous experience, height, weight, and position.

You can be really creative have a central character in a storyline. You will be in a position to inform your children that all of you is planning to be going to Disneyland during Yuletide season because you've enough money. You will probably be able to inform your children that of you will probably be planning to Disneyland during Yuletide season because you've enough money. Of course there is likely to be a shift within the creative approach and also the viral marketing strategy. license for around $160 per year.

The viral power of your business social media marketing campaign is large which means you have to think about having such campaign inside your overall marketing strategy. marketingtitan. Most people often hear of the large company products, but Burt's Bees might not be described as a household name yet. Oh, you won't become i7 group espaol sitting back regarding long however, since the business will start arriving as soon because it goes live for your public.

Sunday, 25 June 2017

This $250 wifi sprinkler can cut lawn water use 30%

Rachio, a Denver-based start-up, has been selling a "smart sprinkler" for the last year. The device takes the place of a traditional control box on an automated home sprinkler system. It hooks the system up to the Internet -- meaning that you can control it from a smartphone.

It also means the sprinkler system can now check the weather. If it's going to rain or has rained recently, the system holds off on watering. It also automatically adjusts the watering times for each season. And it waters intermittently to allow for maximum absorption -- which also encourages the grass to grow deeper roots and become more drought-resistant. These things alone can cut lawn water use by 30%, according to the company -- no small amount when at least eight Western states are in extreme drought, or worse.

Related: Can these gates protect NYC from the next flood?

The company was formed after C hris Klein and Franz Garsombke -- two software engineers working for a real estate intelligence firm -- went through the last drought in Colorado in 2012. When fall came and the dryness subsided, the two noticed that sprinklers in the area were still running, even though it was raining.

"We figured there had to be a better way," said Klein.

So the pair started writing code and entered a contest run by the Colorado Innovation Network -- a consortium of businesses, governments and universities that promotes economic development in the state. They won $50,000, quit their jobs, and began building the company. Now they have 18 employees, and sales are on track to quadruple from last year, although Klein would not disclose revenue numbers or units sold.

RachioThe hardware mounts in your home, the software is accessible online.

The device itself looks like a router, and Klein said most people can install it in 20 minutes. (If you still can't, most likely a gardener or electrician can.)

The entire thing -- plastic, electronics, packaging -- is made in Colorado. Klein said it would probably be cheaper to make it abroad, but the company is convinced that U.S. manufacturing costs will fall as more companies decide to build stuff here -- and they want to be part of the force driving that change.

It's compatible with Nest and other smart home systems, and many areas experiencing drought -- including Los Angeles, Fresno and the Santa Clara Valley -- subsidize the $250 retail price, said Klein.

Of course Califo rnia is the most populous state seeing a historic drought, and Klein said roughly a third of his sales are in that state, up from about a quarter last year.

Rachio isn't the only company to make these devices -- competitors include Blossom and Skydrop.

CNNMoney (New York) First published May 13, 2015: 6:38 AM ET

Saturday, 24 June 2017

The Incredible Jessica James Teaser Trailer: Jessica Jones Is a Confident Delight

The Incredible Jessica James Trailer: Jessica Jones Is a Confident Delight

'The Incredible Jessica James' Teaser Trailer: Jessica Williams Is a Confident Delight

Posted on Friday, June 23rd, 2017 by Ethan Anderton

The Incredible <a href= Jessica James Trailer" width="700" height="356">The Incredible Jessica James Trailer
< br>You might know Jessica Williams from her time as a correspondent on The Daily Show when Jon Stewart was still hosting the show. However, her indie romantic comedy that debuted at Sundance earlier this year has started turning some heads. Hopefully, she'll become a movie star.

The Incredible Jessica James finds Jones playing an aspiring playwright in New York City. She's confident, blunt, charming and hilarious, but she's also recovering form a big break-up and finds her life not entirely under control. That makes a new relationship and her uncertainty about her career that much more difficult to deal with. We've all been there before.

Watch The Incredible Jessica James trailer below.

This movie is a real charmer, and it features a star-making performance by Jessica Williams. The movie is essentially her own version of Trainwreck, but it feels less like a polished studio comedy and more like an authentic indie with a similar, though less vulgar comedic style. Our own Angie Han caught the movie at Sundance too and she loved Williams' performance as well: "She delivers Jessica's snarky one-liners with relish, as you'd expect from an actress who cut her teeth on The Daily Show, but proves almost as compelling when she reins it in to expose Jessica's uncertainty and vulnerability."

Chris O'Dowd also does a fine job as the nice guy who becomes part of Jessica's life, though ultimately creating more complications in the way you'd expect from a coming-of-age story like this. Though this kind of narrative is familiar, the presence of talents like O'Dowd and Jones really make it stand out in a refreshing way.

The Incredible Jessica James is another in a line of quiet successes for director Jim Strouse, who previously was at the helm of lower profile movies like Grace is Gone, The Winning Season and People Places Things, not to mention scripting The Hollars.

You can read our full review of The Incredible Jessica James right here.

Jessica James (Jessica Williams), an aspiring playwright in New York City, is trying hard to get over a recent breakup with her boyfriend. She sees light at the end of the tunnel when she meets Boone (Chris O'Dowd), who's also recovering from a recent break-up. Together, they figure out a way to make it through the tough times in a social media obsessed post-relationship universe, wh ile also realizing they like each other--a lot.

The Incredible Jessica James hits Netflix starting July 28.

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Wednesday, 21 June 2017

Landscape design plans | Landscape Garden design

The landscape design market is booming. But what is booming along with it is the market of the online software that actually helps you design a landscape for your own house. I think it is a brilliant innovation. The advantages of the same are manifold. Not only do you save on the money that you would be giving to a professional landscaper, you will also actually be putting yourself into the design. Each and every corner in your house can now be a reflection of you and your family.

People in the United States spend a huge amount of money in landscape architecture as property is considered as the most important investment there. After all, it is an investment that will bring years of enjoyment, peace and harmony at your property. However, it is very important to understand all aspects of landscaping so that the money is not wasted and also that your landscape architects do not cheat you. Also, it is very vital to understand that the landscape should reflect your personality and not vice-versa. So do not overdo anything.

While choosing a landscape design for your house, considering the geographical and climatic conditions of your area is of utmost importance. For example, planning lush green lawns bordered with exotic flowers in an area where drought is a high possibility would be rather foolish. In contrast, a rock garden in a rocky terrain would be a fantastic idea. Also, in an area where water is available in plenty around the year, a water feature like a pond that reflects the sky and the surrounding surfaces can add depth and dimension to your landscape.

Along with the softwares, there are also a huge number of online websites that provide help. Some sites are owned by professional landscapers who fill their website with beautif ul pictures of what they could your backyards into. However, some are in it for the pure pleasure of landscaping and fill their sites with very useful home landscape design ideas and tips.

Some of the easy to use and inexpensive landscape design software available for home landscape design over the Internet are:

Plan 3D: is an online landscape design service that helps you create home landscape with features available for walks, drives, patios, trees and planting. It lets you view your design from any angle.

Instant Architect Home (Broderbun d Software): provides the ability to design your own home or landscape and is very intuitive in nature. Hence, no previous experience is required.

Fences and Gates: software helps design fences and gates in an artistic manner. It also provides a list of all the materials that will be required to build the fence after the design has been finalized.

3D Home Architect Home & Landscape: provide easy to use home and landscape design solutions, which also contains a complete set of landscape design tools. It uses the latest design techniques and technologies to make designing a very enjoyable experience.

35 Do It Yourself Backyard Project Plans: allows building 35 different projects for your backyard. It allows a combination of 10 sheds, 3 playhouses, 3 gazebos, 3 arbors, 2 picnic tables, a deck, a doghouse, a sandbox, fence and a loveseat. This is very inexpensive so ftware and permits printing of plans.

Realtime Landscaping PRO (Idea Spectrum): helps you visualize even the most demanding landscape design projects. Using the latest advances in 3D technology, even beginners will find it easy to plan and visualize design ideas.

Realtime Landscaping PLUS (Idea Spectrum): helps create highly realistic 3D and photo based landscape designs. This software is ideal for homeowners as well as professional designers. The plus point is that no CAD or prior architectural experience is required.

Tuesday, 20 June 2017

10 homes with incredible vertical gardens

Photo courtesy of Hector Armando Herrera

It's time to think outside the flower box.

For many homeowners, a love of the outdoors clashes with the realities of small spaces. How do you plant a garden when you Sprinkler Installation hardly have the space for your barbecue grill, let alone that patio set you've been dreaming about? The answer for many homeowners is simple: Move the garden on up.

V ertical gardens give homeowners the luxury of having their own plants while maximizing the space they have for entertaining, relaxing and cooking out. Some make interesting living art pieces, while others provide an extra level of privacy from nearby neighbors.

A well-placed vertical garden could also give your house an especially unique curb appeal that sets it apart from every other house on the block.

Don't have much of a green thumb? Not to worry. Many vertical gardens are stocked with succulents and other low-maintenance plants that are easy to care for and help keep water bills low. Others are planted with built-in irrigation systems that can be programmed to care for a homeowner's garden even when they can't.

Whether they use small focal pieces full of succulents or a three-story wall designed to control temperature Sprinkler System Installation and light, these 10 homes and their amazing vertical gardens are sure to inspire.

Saturday, 17 June 2017

Home builders beating back fire sprinkler laws

HARTFORD, Conn. - Nearly three dozen states have rejected the idea of requiring sprinkler systems in homes by enacting legislation or rules that prohibit mandatory installation.

Home builders, still reeling from the recession, say requiring sprinklers would add to their costs. They have found allies in state legislatures and rule-making bodies that have turned aside arguments by fire safety officials that requiring sprinklers in homes save lives.

The National Association of Home Builders has not taken a position on state action banning mandatory fir e sprinklers in homes, said program manager Steve Orlowski, but the group has argued that installing residential sprinklers should be up to homeowners.

Either through legislation or code, 34 states have prohibited mandatory residential fire sprinklers, Orlowski said. Only two states -- California and Maryland -- have adopted codes requiring installation of home sprinklers, he said.

In other states, sprinkler legislation died or is pending until next year, according to the National Conference of State Legislatures.

Connecticut, for example, is deferring action until next year. A measure requiring automatic fire extinguishing systems in one- and two-family homes failed to make it to a vote in the Public Safety and Security Committee.

Sen. Anthony Guglielmo, the committee's ranking Republican senator, said legislators did not have enough information about the cost to builders and municipalities that would enforce the law. Legislators will take up the issue next year only after hearing the recommendations of officials and others brought together by the state Department of Public Safety, he said.

The International Code Council, an organization of building inspectors, fire officials and others who set building standards, recommended in 2009 that states and municipalities adopt codes requiring sprinkler systems in homes and townhouses less than three stories high. The regulations took effect Jan. 1.

The National Fire Protection Association has said sprinklers will particularly help young children, the elderly and the disabled by giving them time to escape burning homes.

Opponents of requiring sprinkl ers cite their cost -- and subsequent impact on home prices -- and voters' dissatisfaction with government mandates.

In Missouri, lawmakers extended for eight years rules that require builders to offer sprinklers but do not mandate them.

"Our main concern, in this housing market, is that the requirement for mandatory fire sprinklers could cost $7,000 to $15,000 per home," said Missouri state Sen. Eric Schmitt, Republican chairman of the Jobs, Economic Development and Local Government Committee. "In this market, it's very difficult to justify."

In New Hampshire, Gov. John Lynch tried to vetoed legislation that prohibited local planning boards from requiring sprinkler systems in homes as a condition of approval for local permits. The decision about whether to require fire sprinklers should remain a local one, Lynch said.

Legislators overrode the veto.

Sen. John S. Barnes, Republican chairman of the Public Municipal Affairs Committee, said the overrid e vote was not easy because he typically favors local control. But he does not believe any government body should be ordering homeowners to install fire sprinklers.

"If I buy or build a house, I think I should decide whether I put in a sprinkler system," he said.

John A. Viniello, president of the National Fire Sprinkler Association, said the process by which codes are approved is flawed. Codes regulating wiring, construction and other facets of home construction are informed by expert advice from industry and others, he said.

But when legislatures have a role in the process, codes too often are modified or scuttled, he said.

"Once the politicians get involved, it's over," he said.

Friday, 16 June 2017

Netafim's New Mobile App Combines Field, Climate and Weather Data to Forecast the Watering Needs of Corn Crops

FRESNO, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Netafim

USA, the leader in drip irrigation, announced today the release of a

powerful new mobile app that provides corn growers who use drip

irrigation with access to customized irrigation protocols and the

agronomic expertise needed to boost crop productivity and reduce overall

water use.

Free to download for iPhone

and Android

users, the NetMaize

app combines farmer inputs such as germination time, crop stage

information, soil type and field location, with climate and weather data

to develop a tailored drip irrigation protocol for corn growers using

drip irrigation. By streamlining the management of variables affecting

overall crop productivity, growers are able to better forecast the

irrigation needs of their corn crop and maintain precision control over

the root zone environment during the plant's critical growth stages.

In addition to Sprinkler System Installation Arlington real-time irrigation scheduling, NetMaize's one-touch

sharing function allows growers to instantly send current field data and

logs to a crop consultant or Netafim agronomist for review or use in a

more comprehensive agronomic plan.

"Simply put, nobody understands their field better than the farmer. By

combining grower knowledge with local weather data and more than five

decades of Netafim agronomic expertise, NetMaize gives corn farmers the

information they need to get the most out of their drip irrigation

system," said Lior Peleg, Head of Strategic Sprinkler System Installation Solutions at Netafim.

The NetMaize app enables growers to reap the benefits of drip

irrigation, maintaining optimal uniform soil moisture levels, root zone

aeration, improved plant health while maximizing water efficiency.

Developed by Netafim's team of agronomists and drawing on more than 50

years of experience in drip irrigation, NetMaize requires only a few

simple steps to get started. The app uses a clean, easy-to-read app

interface and communicates input instructions, information and

irrigation requirements in a clear and simple manner, allowing farmers

to make quicker and more informed decisions about the irrigation needs

of their crop.

"It is like having a drip irrigation expert in your pocket at all

times," added Peleg.

The NetMaize app is free to download and available through the Apple

iTunes Store for iPhone and the Google

Play Store for Android.


Netafim USA, based in Fresno, Calif., develops and manufactures drip

irrigation systems for agriculture, landscape & turf, greenhouse

&nursery, mining and wastewater. Netafim offers an extensive range of

irrigation solutions including driplines, filters, sprinklers, valves,

water meters and automation equipment for complete dripline system

installations. For more information go

Landscaping :: Lawn Sprinkler System Bergen County New Jersey

Tips On Lawn Irrigation In Northern New Jersey.

This article will help anybody who is considering the purchase of a lawn sprinkler system for their home. We interviewed 21 year lawn irrigation expert Greg Tanzer of Greg Tanzer Sprinklers in Bergen County New Jersey, to find out exactly what you should know when considering a lawn sprinkler system. What we found out was very interesting. We also scoured the Internet to find the best resources that will help prepare you with the information you need to make the right decision. We started by asking Greg Tanzer to tell us what are the most common questions that new customers have when considering a lawn sprinkler system.

Many people inquire about rain sensors. They want to know if rain sensors are a necessary item for their system. In the state of New Jersey rain sensors are required by law. However, some sprinkler installers will tell you they are optional and add an additional cost to include rain sensors. All price quotes in New Jersey should have rain sensors included. Under the New Jersey mandate, even older systems that do not have rain sensors are supposed to be upgraded.

Another question many people ask is, "should I use drip irrigation?". According to Greg Tanzer, drip irrigation was developed in areas of the country that have limited water supplies such as areas of Arizona, California, and New Mexico. New Jersey is fortunate to have a good amount of available water. Some instances of when drip irrigation is appropriate are when plants are positioned in an awkward location such as a terraced landscape, or when you are providing irrigation to indoor plantings in a mall or greenhouse. One of the disadvantages of drip irrigation is that if it fails you are unlikely to know about it until there is dead plant material. That is because drip uses water in gallons per hour verses sprinklers th at use gallons per minute. When a sprinkler fails you have a "wash out" that produces a lot of noticeable water on the lawns surface, however by the time you realize there is a problem with your drip system, you generally have dead plant material.

Many people don't know that an improperly installed lawn sprinkler system can contaminate household drinking water causing severe illness that can even be fatal. Because of this, in New Jersey it is required by law to have a state certified backflow inspector install a backflow device in your system. This is a specialized check valve that will prevent the sprinkler water from mixing with your household water supply. If you go to sell your house and you do not have a backflow device installed in your sprinkler system, you will have to have one installed. Therefore it is critical to make sure your installer is a licensed backflow insp ector as well.

It is not uncommon to have very costly damage to your property during a sprinkler system installation that can cost you thousands of dollars. The best way to avoid this is to have a "mark out" done on your property. This is when all the utility companies come to your house and put their small flags on the lawn that show where there pipe or cable is buried. This is the responsibility of your installer. They must contact each utility company and request the mark out for your property. If your sprinkler company says that a mark out is not necessary, demand it or find another sprinkler company.

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These are just some of the critical things you must be aware of if you are considering a lawn sprinkler system for your home. Another great resource that answers these questions as well as the questions you should be asking your lawn sprinkler company is called, "Tips That Can Save You Thousands On Lawn Irrigation In Northern New Jersey". This excellent buyer's guide is free and can be found at This is a must read for anyone in New Jersey considering a lawn sprinkler system for their home.

Thursday, 15 June 2017

Legal Archives -


What You Need to Do Immediately After a Car Accident

Feb 09, 2017

by ArticleCity Blog



Car accidents Attorney College Station come out of nowhere, and when you're in a state of shock, it's hard to know what to do. This guide explains what you need to protect Best Attorney College Station yourself....

Read More

Home Improvement :: How Solar Panels Work To Produce Solar Energy In Three Steps

For many, the concept of being able to tap into the sun and produce energy that can power their home, business, or automobile is a mysterious phenomenon. Unlocking the power of the sun in just a few simple steps can not only save you thousands on utility bills but also help create a more sustainable world by reducing our carbon footprint. Here is how solar panels work to produce energy:

1.Solar Panel Technology

Solar panels work to convert sunlight into electricity that your home can use, reducing your electricitybills. Solar panels come in a variety of sizes and shapes, and use a range of solar cell technology. The very best solar panels work harder by maximizing every drop of solar energy available throughout the day. The very best solar panels on the market can produce 70% more energy than lesser solar panels over the course of 25 years*. Studies have shown that a solid copper foundation adds strength to solar panels, and ultra pure silicon delivers optimal solar energy conversion. In fact, the world record efficiency of 24.2% delivers 44% more power per square foot of solar panels, meaning that they work to produce significantly more solar energy that panels made from other materials. It's also imperative that your solar panels are engineered and tested to stand up to the world's harshest conditions, including temperature swings, battering winds, humidity, hail, and more. If the design or quality of the solar panel is inferior, it could mean that you'll be producing significantly less solar energy. A well-certified system has been shown to yield solar energy for mor e than 40 years.

2.Installing Solar Panels

Once you select the very highest quality solar panel technology, placement of the solar panels is key to generating solar energy. Some of the most popular locations for solar panel installation are on the roof of your home or business, surrounding areas on the ground, or a solar canopy. Your solar company will input your home's dimensions into a Computer Assisted Design (CAD) program to aid in assembling a permit submittal packet. Once the solar company has determined which location will generate the most solar energy and the number of panels will be installed, a typical solar system installation only takes a couple of days.

3.Monitoring The System

Once your system is installed, you'll immediately start producing solar energy that can be used to run your lights, computers, machinery, and any other electrical devices for your home or business. A utility meter tracks your energy use and counts both ways. You will earn credits for solar power produced but not used because it is pushed back into the utility grid. The utility grid still provides you with electricity at night, when you're not producing enough solar power, but any credits earned during the day cover that cost. Remember, the amount of solar energy you're producing can change throughout the year based on where you live and how much sunlight your panels are receiving on a daily basis. To check on how much solar energy your panels are producing you can use your online monitoring system to track production. If you notice a significant variation, notify your solar panel installer to ensure everything is working properly.


Zao Wou-ki: Painting beyond words (1920-2013)

Story highlightsChinese-French painter Zao Wou-ki died Tuesday at age 93Zao was regarded as one of foremost Chinese contemporary painters of the 20th centuryZao was uniquely able to combine cultures, aesthetic visions of France and China in his work

The Chinese-French painter Zao Wou-ki once told me that painting expresses the thoughts we struggle to put into words. Faced with this challenge, "It's easier to learn English!" he joked, his wit shining through, even though Alzheimer's disease had already begun its slow, relentless onslaught on his mind.

Zao, widely regarded as one of the foremost Chinese contemporary painters of the 20th century, passed away at his home in Switzerland on Tuesday at the age of 93.

Born in Beijing in 1920, he formed part of the second generation of Chinese artists to turn westward in their search for inspiration. Encouraged by the French-educated Chinese artist Lin Feng mian, his teacher at the prestigious Hangzhou National College of Art (today the China Academy of Art), he relocated to Paris in 1948. Although he did not know it at the time, the move would be permanent, due in part to the rapidly changing political situation in China.

Apart from brief trips abroad, Zao would remain in France until the year before his death, one of the few Chinese artists from his generation to emigrate to Europe. Embraced by France, he was elected to the prestigious Academie des Beaux Arts society in 2002 and received the Legion of Honor in 2006 from then-president Jacques Chirac.

For Zao and his contemporaries, Paris represented the source of modern art. Living there meant direct access to the paintings that he had until then only encountered as black-and-white reproductions in art magazines. An oil painter by vocation, he immersed himself in the riches that surrounded him -- heading directly to the Louvre on the very day he arrived in the city.

Meanwhile, with the assistance of his friend and mentor, noted poet and painter Henri Michaux, and blessed with the warm charm and wit that would impress me decades later, Zao cultivated an extensive circle of fellow artists and cultural figures. In just a few years, he established himself as an integral member of the postwar French art world.

Zao worked hard to find his artistic voice. At first he made a determined effort to distance himself from ink painting -- the medium most closely associated with the Chinese painting tra dition-- and subject matter that might be construed as overtly Chinese. He wished to be appreciated on his own merits and not to fall victim to stereotype.

His breakthrough, however, came with his 1954 masterpiece "Wind," a painting that was both his first purely abstract work and a return to his origins: the inky black forms rising in two wavering columns are abstractions of oracle bone characters -- the most ancient of Chinese scripts.

In the decades that followed, Zao committed himself fully to abstract painting, rarely using even figurative titles after 1959. Instead, he titled his works with their date of completion, marking their entry into the world. The lyrical qualities that defined him as an artist appeared early on, first in his oil paintings and later in his ink paintings, after his reengagement with the medium in the early 1970s: oscillating planes of color, light, and shade met, collided, and diverged, skidding across the surface of his works.

The apparent disorder of his paintings concealed an underlying structure, sometimes described as Daoist in nature, which bore striking parallels to a similar balance between order and chaos found in Chinese traditional painting. In Zao's case, this phenomenon is perhaps best understood as a self-statement: the artist's insistence on his personal and aesthetic identity in the face of the vagaries of borders and time.

Zao's given name, "Wou-ki" (or "Wuji" in the standard Hanyu Pinyin romanization used in China), means "no boundaries." No single phrase better encapsulates the union in his person and art of the two often disparate cultures and aesthetic visions of France and China.

"French thought and Chinese thought are not the same," he told me. "It's hard to translate between them. Sometimes you must wear yourself out trying to understand. Painting must express these feelings."

An artist friend once asked about my research. Hearing that I studied Zao Wou-ki, he grew suddenly pensive. "Zao Wou-ki," he mused, "his work isn't representative of either Chinese or French art." "Yes," I answered. "He represents himself, and that is enough."

Wednesday, 14 June 2017


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation).

Garden of the Taj Mahal, India

Royal gardens of Reggia di Caserta, Italy

A kaiyu-shiki or strolling Japanese garden

Chehel Sotoun Garden, Esfahan, Iran

A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials. The most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one. Zoos, which display wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens.[1][2] Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with garden often signifying a shortened form of botanical garden.

Some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants sparsely or not at all. Xeriscape gardens use local native plants that do not require irrigation or extensive use of other resources while still providing the benefits of a garden environment. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, some times called follies, including water features such as fountains, ponds (with or without fish), waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, statuary, arbors, trellises and more.

Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some gardens also produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas, or sometimes intermixed with the ornamental plants. Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their smaller scale, more labor-intensive methods, and their purpose (enjoyment of a hobby rather than produce for sale). Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, colors, textures, and fragrances to create interest and delight the senses.

Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener. A gardener might also work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space. Landscape architecture is a related professional activity with landscape architects tending to sp ecialise in design for public and corporate clients.


1 Etymology

2 Garden design

3 Designs for the Perfect Garden

4 Elements of a garden

5 Uses for the garden space

6 Types of gardens

7 Environmental impacts of gardens

8 Watering gardens

9 Wildlife in gardens

10 Climate change and gardens

11 In religion, art, and literature

12 Other similar spaces

13 See also

14 Notes

15 External links


Nicosia municipal gardens, Cyprus

The etymology of the word gardening refers to enclosure: it is from Middle English gardin, from Anglo-French gardin, jardin, of Germanic origin; akin to Old High German gard, gart, an enclosure or compound, as in Stuttgart. See Grad (Slavic settlement) for more complete etymology.[3] The words yard, court, and Latin hortus (meaning "garden," hence horticulture and orchard), are cognates--all referring to an enclosed space.[4]

The term "garden" in British English refers to a small enclosed area of land, usually adjoining a building.[5] This would be referred to as a yard in American English.

Garden design

Main article: Garden design

Garden design is the creation of plans fo r the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Gardens may be designed by garden owners themselves, or by professionals. Professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, and have a knowledge and experience of using plants. Some professional garden designers are also landscape architects, a more formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree and often a state license.

Elements of garden design include the layout of hard landscape, such as paths, rockeries, walls, water features, sitting areas and decking, as well as the plants themselves, with consideration for their horticultural requirements, their season-to-season appearance, lifespan, growth habit, size, speed of growth, and combinations with other plants and landscape features. Consideration is also given to the maintenance needs of the garden, including the time or funds available for regular maintenance, which can affect the choices of plants regarding s peed of growth, spreading or self-seeding of the plants, whether annual or perennial, and bloom-time, and many other characteristics. Garden design can be roughly divided into two groups, formal and naturalistic gardens.[6]

The most important consideration in any garden design is, how the garden will be used, followed closely by the desired stylistic genres, and the way the garden space will connect to the home or other structures in the surrounding areas. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget. Budget limitations can be addressed by a simpler garden style with fewer plants and less costly hardscape materials, seeds rather than sod for lawns, and plants that grow quickly; alternatively, garden owners may choose to create their garden over time, area by area.

Example of a garden attached to a place of worship: the cloister of the Abbey of Monreale, Sicily, Italy

The Sunken Garden of Butchart Gardens, Victoria, British Columbia

Gardens of Versailles (France)

The back garden of the Umaid Bhawan Palace in Jodhpur, India

Tropical garden in the Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore in Singapore

Flower-bed with the date in Lignano Sabbiadoro, Italy

Gardens at Colonial Williamsburg, Williamsburg, Virginia, feature many heirloom varieties of plants.

Shitenn?-ji Honbo Garden in Osaka, Osaka prefecture, Japan - an example of a zen garden.

Designs for the Perfect Garden


Greenery enclosures are for yards and family play fields, as well as be ideal areas for capacity sheds wherein one can just essentially stock unused family unit stuffs in the shed. As a component of the whole house outside, it is just however legitimate that garden sheds will likewise look adequate and in-in respect to the house's outline.

Elements of a garden

Garden at the centre of intersection in Shanghai.

Naturalistic design of a Chinese garden incorporated into the landscape, including a pavilion

Garden with Fountains, Villa d'Este, Italy.

Most gardens consist of a mix of natural and constructed elements, although even very 'natural' gardens are always an inherently artificial creation. Natural elements present in a garden principally comprise flora (such as trees and weeds), fauna (such as arthropods and birds), soil, water, air and light. Constructed elements include paths, patios, decking, sculptures, drainage systems, lights and buildings (such as sheds, gazebos, pergolas and follies), but also living constructions such as flower beds, ponds and lawns.

Uses for the garden space

Partial view from the Botanical Garden of Curitiba (Southern Brazil): parterres, flowers, fountains, sculptures, greenhouses and tracks composes the place used for recreation and to study and protect the flora.

A garden can have aesthetic, functional, and recreational uses:

Cooperation with nature

Plant cultivation

Garden-based learning

Observation of nature

Bird- and insect-watching

Reflection on the changing seasons


Family dinners on the terrace

Children playing in the garden

Reading and relaxing in the hammock

Maintaining the flowerbeds

Pottering in the shed

Basking in warm sunshine

Escaping oppressive sunlight and heat

Growing useful produce

Flowers to cut and bring inside for indoor beauty

Fresh herbs and vegetables for cooking

Types of gardens

A typical Italian garden at Villa Garzoni, near Pistoia

Checkered garden in Tours, France

Zen garden, Ry?an-ji

French formal garden in the Loire Valley

Bristol Zoo, England

Castelo Branco, Portugal

Hualien, Taiwan

The Italian gardens of El Escorial, Spain

An ornamental garden in the Auburn Botanical Gardens, Sydney, Australia

Gardens may feature a particular plant or plant type(s);

Back garden

Bog garden

Cactus garden

Color garden


Flower garden

Front yard

Kitchen garden

Mary garden



Rose garden

Shade garden


Wildflower garden

Winter garden

Gardens may feature a particular style or aesthetic:


Chinese garden

Dutch garden

English landscape garden

Gardens of the French Renaissance

French formal garden

French landscape garden

Italian Renaissance garden

Japan ese garden

Knot garden

Korean garden

Mughal garden

Natural landscaping

Persian garden

Roman gardens

Spanish garden


Trial garden

Tropical garden

Water garden

Wild garden


Zen garden

Types of garden:

Botanical garden

Butterfly garden

Butterfly zoo


Cold frame garden

Community garden

Container garden

Cottage garden

Cutting garden

Forest garden

Garden conservatory

Green wall


Hanging garden

Hydroponic garden

Market garden

Rain garden

Raised bed gardening

Residential garden

Roof garden

Sacred garden

Sensory garden

Square foot garden

Vertical garden

Walled garden


Zoological garden

Environmental impacts of gardens

Gardeners may cause envir onmental damage by the way they garden, or they may enhance their local environment. Damage by gardeners can include direct destruction of natural habitats when houses and gardens are created; indirect habitat destruction and damage to Sprinkler System Installation Greenville provide garden materials such as peat, rock for rock gardens, and by the use of tapwater to irrigate gardens; the death of living beings in the garden itself, such as the killing not only of slugs and snails but also their predators such as hedgehogs and song thrushes by metaldehyde slug killer; the death of living beings outside the garden, such as local species extinction by indiscriminate plant collectors; and climate change caused by greenhouse gases produced by gardening.

Watering gardens

Some gardeners manage their gardens without using any water from outside the garden, and therefore do not deprive wetland habitats of the water they need to survive. Examples in Britain include Ventnor Botanic Garden on the Isle of Wight, and parts of Beth Chatto's garden in Essex, Sticky Wicket garden in Dorset, and the Royal Horticultural Society's gardens at Harlow Carr and Hyde Hall. Rain gardens absorb rainfall falling onto nearby hard surfaces, rather than sending it into stormwater drains.[7] For irrigation, see rainwater, sprinkler system, drip irrigation, tap water, greywater, hand pump and watering can.

Wildlife in gardens

Chris Baines's classic book 'How to make a wildlife garden'[8] was first published in 1985, and is still a good source of advice on how to create and manage a wildlife garden.

Climate change and gardens

Climate change will have many impacts on gardens, most of them negative, and these are detailed in 'Gardening in the Global Greenhouse' by Richard Bisgrove and Paul Hadley.[9] Gardens also contribute to climate change. Greenhouse gases can be produced by gardeners in many w ays. The three main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. Gardeners produce carbon dioxide directly by overcultivating soil and destroying soil carbon, by burning garden 'waste' on bonfires, by using power tools which burn fossil fuel or use electricity generated by fossil fuels, and by using peat. Gardeners produce methane by compacting the soil and making it anaerobic, and by allowing their compost heaps to become compacted and anaerobic. Gardeners produce nitrous oxide by applying excess nitrogen fertiliser when plants are not actively growing so that the nitrogen in the fertiliser is converted by soil bacteria to nitrous oxide. Gardeners can help to prevent climate change in many ways, including the use of trees, shrubs, ground cover plants and other perennial plants in their gardens, turning garden 'waste' into soil organic matter instead of burning it, keeping soil and compost heaps aerated, avoiding peat, switching from power tools to hand tools or changing their garden design so that power tools are not needed, and using nitrogen-fixing plants instead of nitrogen fertiliser.[10]

In religion, art, and literature

The Garden of Eden

Romance of the Rose

Nathaniel Hawthorne's short-story "Rappaccini's Daughter"

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's opera La finta giardiniera

Frances Hodgson Burnett's The Secret Garden

Elizabeth von Arnim's novels Elizabeth and Her German Garden and Solitary Summer

John Steinbeck's short-story The Chrysanthemums

John Berendt's novel Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil

In Daphne du Maurier's novel "Rebecca" the unnamed narrator discovers that her husband loves his house and garden at Manderley so much that he murdered his first wife, Rebecca, when she told him she was pregnant with somebody else's child and that the child would inherit Manderley.

Other similar spaces

Other outdoor spaces that are similar to gardens include:< br>
A landscape is an outdoor space of a larger scale, natural or designed, usually unenclosed and considered from a distance.

A park is a planned outdoor space, usually enclosed ('imparked') and of a larger size. Public parks are for public use.

An arboretum is a planned outdoor space, usually large, for the display and study of trees.

A farm or orchard is for the production of food stuff.

A botanical garden is a type of garden where plants are grown both for scientific purposes and for the enjoyment and education of visitors.

A zoological garden, or zoo for short, is a place where wild animals are cared for and exhibited to the public.

A Kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children and in the very sense of the word should have access or be part of a garden.

A Mnnergarten is a temporary day-care and activities space for men in German-speaking countries while their wives or girlfriends go shopping. Historically, the expression has also been used for gender-specific sections in lunatic asylums, monasteries and clinics.[11]

See also

Around the World in 80 Gardens



Bottle garden

Climate-friendly gardening

Community gardening

Garden centre

Garden tourism



Heritage Gardens in Australia

History of gardening

Hortus conclusus

List of botanical gardens

List of companion plants

List of gardens

Museum of Garden History

National Public Gardens Day

Paradise, originally from an Iranian word meaning "enclosed," related to Garden of Eden

Verde Pulgar, a software application that assists with gardening

The Victory Garden TV series

Walled garden

Water garden


^ Garden history: philosophy and design, 2000 BC--2000 AD, Tom Turner. New York: Spon Press, 2005. ISBN 0-415-31748-7

^ The earth knows my name: food, culture, and sustainability in the gardens of ethnic Americans, Patricia Klindienst. Boston: Beacon Press, c2006. ISBN 0-8070-8562-6

^ "Etymology of the modern word gardin". Merriam Webster.

^ "Etymology of words referring to enclosures, probably from a Sanskrit stem. In German, for example, Stuttgart. The word is generic for compounds and walled cities, as in Stalingrad, and the Russian word for city, gorod. Gird and girdle are also related". Archived from the original on 2010-02-13.

^ The Compact Oxford English Dictionary

^ Chen, Gang (2010). Planting design illustrated (2nd ed.). Outskirts Press, Inc. p.3. ISBN978-1-4327-4197-6.

^ Dunnett and Clayden, Nigel and Andy (2007). Rain Gardens: Managing Water Sustainably in the Garden and Designed Landscape. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press. ISBN978-0881928266.

^ Baines, Chris (2000). How to make a wildlife garden. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN978-0711217119.

^ Bisgrove and Hadley, Richard and Paul (2002). Gardening in the Global Greenhouse: The impacts of climate change on gardens in the UK. Oxford: UK Climate Impacts Programme.

^ Ingram, Vince-Prue, and Gregory (editors), David S., Daphne, and Peter J. (2008). Science and the Garden: The scientific basis of horticultural practice. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN9781405160636.

^ See: Jakob Fischel, Prag's K. K. Irrenanstalt und ihr Wirken seit ihrem Entstehen bis incl. 1850. Erlangen: Enke, 1853, OCLC14844310 (German)

External links

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